Tuesday, October 7, 2008

http://www.cpe.rutgers.edu/main/staff.html

http://deathstar.rutgers.edu/clear/ucgis.html

Welcome
to the Rutgers node of theUniversity Consortium for Geographic Information Science

RUGIS participants

New Jersey GIS

New Jersey Net

Related Servers

The University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) is a non-profit organization of universities and other research institutions dedicated to advancing our understanding of geographic processes and spatial relationships through improved theory, methods, technology, and data. UCGIS membership is open to all U.S. academic and research organizations that meet the membership criteria listed below. Member institutions will have the opportunity to participate in reviewing and setting national research priorities in GIS and related specialties.

Rutgers University GIS (RUGIS) is a member of The University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS). Faculty with GIS interest at Rutgers have constituents in both the research and education communities. Five core faculty and other affiliated faculty are active in national and international organizations that provide forums for dissemination of research. Together the five core faculty are active members of a variety of organizations that include the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, the American Water Resources Association, the Ecological Society of America, the American Association of Geographers, The Transportation Research Board, and the American Planning Association. One core faculty member is currently on the Board of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association and Feature Editor of the URISA Journal

Rutgers has been a leader in Geographic Information Systems research and education in New Jersey. The Grant F. Walton Center for Remote Sensing and Spacial Analysis was established in 1983 at Cook College. In 1989 the Center moved to new facilities as teaching and research activities were joined in a state-of-the- art setting. From its initiation the Center has supported itself with funded research, contract work and donations of the latest hardware and software.

Computer modeling of transportation and land use has always played a role in the research of the Computer Laboratory in the department of Urban Planning and Policy Development (Bloustein School of Planning). Since 1991 the focus of the Laboratory has progressively shifted toward urban GIS applications. In July of 1995 the Urban Planning lab was provided with a new building and greatly upgraded equipment.

The Faculty of the Grant F. Walton Center for Remote Sensing at Cook College and the Computer Laboratory at Bloustein School have been actively cooperating in research and teaching efforts since 1993. Recent software donations were jointly negotiated by the two departments and several cooperating research proposals are pending. Both departments offer a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs that emphasize the fundamental use of GIS and its many different applications.

Rutgers UCGIS Participants
Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis
Department of Environmental Science
Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences
The Geography Computer Network
Department of Geological Sciences
The Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute
Center for Urban Policy Research
Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity


NJ GIS Related Sites
GIS Courses at Rutgers University
Rutgers Undergraduate Certificate Program: Environmental Geomatics
Rutgers Professional Certificate Program in GIS
The State Mapping Advisory Committee New Jersey GIS Resource Guide
New Jersey GIS Data Sources
USDAC Geoscope Prototype
TIGER Map Service
Grasslinks - Browse CRSSA's NJ Spatial Dataset over the internet.
New Jersey Weather
NYS Spatial Data
Lord Andreson Worrell & Barnett Inc.
NJ Environmental Spatial Database


New Jersey Net
State Department of Insurance
The State Budget
State Legislators
City of Trenton
Borough of Princeton
City of Hoboken
City of Montclair
New Jersey Web


Related Servers
The Manual of Federal Geographic Data Products
EPA Public Access to Geospatial Data
The National Geospatial Data Clearing House - Links by State
Arkansas' list of geo data
Metadata and WWW mapping home page

ODORS

Odor
Has insignificant effects on the global or national environment
Has major effects on the local environment
Nearest dwelling
Greatest source of nuisance complaints
Operations % of nuisance complaints from odor
Swine 95
Broiler 75
Layer 66
Beef feedlots 50
Sources
Animal buildings and lots
Manure treatment and storage
Land application
Silage
Feed processing
Dead animal disposal
Difficult to define, quantify, and control
Odor composed of 331 compounds in manure
30 compounds most common in swine manure

Most objectionable compounds in manure
Odor threshold
___Class___ ___Compound___ ____Smell_____ ____ppm____ Substrate
Volatile fatty Butyric acid Rancid butter .001 Carbohydrate
Acids Isobutryic acid Rancid butter - Protein
Caproic acid - - Carbohydrate
Isocaproic acid - - Protein
Valeric acid Putred fecal - Carbohydrate
Isovaleric acid Stinky feet - Protein
Propionic acid Intense vinegar 20.0 Carbohydrate
Phenylpropionic acid - - Protein
Lauric acid - - Carbohydrate
Acetic acid Vinegar 1.0 Carbohydrate
Ammonia and Ammonia Acrid 46.8 Protein
Amines Amines
Putrescine Rotting flesh - Protein
Cadaverine Rotting flesh - Protein
Trimethyl amine - .00021 Protein
Trimethyl pyrazine - - Protein
Tetramethly pyrazine - - Protein
Indoles and Indole Intense fecal - Protein
Phenols Skatole Nauseating fecal - Protein
Phenol - .005 Protein
Ethyl phenol - - Protein
p-Cresol Major odor in swine manure .001 Protein



Measurement of odor
Gas measurement
Air samples are collected and analyzed for specific, individual gaseous compounds
Measured with:
Patches
Indicator tubes
Meters
Electronic sensors
Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer
Advantages
Accurate measure of individual gases
Allows for specific numeric standards
Useful for measuring gaseous compounds with specific health effects
Limitations
Manure odor is not associated with any single compound

Olfactometry
Odors are measured by a trained panel of humans
May be measured
On location
Scentometer
Field sniffer
In laboratory
Dynamic, triangular forced-air olfactometer
Characteristics to describe odor
Concentration
Detection threshold
Volume of normal air needed to dilute odor sample to
the point where the difference is detected by 50% of the panel members
Recognition threshold
Volume of normal air needed to dilute an odor sample to the point that the panel can recognize the compound
Intensity
Describes the strength of the odor relative to different concentrations of n-butanol
Persistence
Amount of air needed to dilute air around a livestock unit to the point where the odor is not smelled

Hedonic tone
Measurement of the unpleasantness of an odor
Scale of measurement is 1 to 10
Character descriptors
A description of the smell
Advantages
There is a direct correlation between odor and the sense of smell
Measures the complete mixture of gases
Limitations
Olfactometry is subjective
Imprecise
Difficult to regulate

Health effects of odors
Within buildings
Toxicity of two compounds
Ammonia
Hydrogen sulfide
Ammonia
Concentrations, ppm Exposure ________Effects____________
20 - Decreased disease resistance
50 < 1 day Eye and throat irritation
Severe cough
100 6 weeks Impaired pulmonary function
<150 < 1 day Scarring of upper and lower airway
500 30 min Sore nose and throat
<1000 - Irritation of upper respiratory
tract
>4000 - Severe damage to upper and
and lower respiratory tract
5000 < 30 min Death
Smells at 50 ppm


Hydrogen sulfide
Most dangerous of gases
Colorless
Can be smelled at 1 ppm, but concentrations > 150 ppm inhibits smell
Makes H2S particularly dangerous
Requires monitoring equipment
Gas is heavier than air
Concentrates in pits and holding tanks
Dangerous when agitated
Acute toxicity
Concentration, ppm Exposure Human effects Swine effects
100 > 1 hr Eye and nose irritation None
200 1 hr Headache, dizziness -
375 4 hr - Pulmonary edema
500 30 min Nausea, excitement, -
insomia
>500 - Severe pulmonary edema -
1000 - Unconsiousness, Spasms, convulsions
death cyanosis, death

Chronic toxicity
Occurs at long-term exposure at 300 ppm
Symptoms
Asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, hay fever, progressive loss of lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Effects of H2S on lungs are uniform throughout the respiratory tract
Particularly damaging to deep pulmonary structures, causing edema
Toxicity effects
Binds mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase
Blocks oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production
Causes build up of lactic acid in body
Neurophysiological abnormalities
Impaired balance
Impaired hearing
Impaired memory
Impaired mood
Impaired intellectual function
Workplace limit
10 ppm H2S

Community effects
Response to NH3, H2S, and VOCs
Symptoms
Headache
Runny nose
Sore throat
Coughing
Diarrhea
Burning eyes
Negative mood (Tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion)
Odor recommendations
Based on dilution ratio of clean air:air from livestock operation
Odor shall not exceed a 7:1 dilution at a residence in two periods/day for more than 7 days per year
Odor shall not exceed a 15:1 dilution at the property line for one period/day for more than 14 days per year
Factors affecting odor complaints
Frequency of problem
86% of farmers tolerate neighbor’s odor if problem occurs > 2 days/year
50% of farmers tolerate neighbor’s odor if problem occurs > 10 days/year
Intensity of problem
Duration of problem
Offensiveness of odor
Relations with neighbors (Time of residence, previous contact)
Odor plume (Direction, topography)


Origin of livestock odor
Odor compound
Large intestine Carbohydrates Protein
(Starch, cellulose) Volatile fatty acids
(Acetic, Propionic, Butyric acids;
may be absorbed or excreted)

H2S and mercaptans
(Passed as gas)
Other amines, phenols, and
indoles (Absorbed from LI &
excreted in urine)

Manure Carbohydrates
(Secondary Volatile fatty acids and alcohols Protein
fermentation Lactic acid
greater at: Butyric acid
Manure pH > 4.5;
High manure moisture; NH3, H2S, mercaptans, branched
High ambient temperatures) chain VFAs (Isobutyric, Isovaleric), CH4
Amines (Putrescine, Cadaverine),
Phenols (Phenol, p-Cresol),
Indoles (indole, Skatole)

Air Emissions increased with increased temperature, moisture, humidity, agitation,
dust, pH, wind, surface exposure

Livestock management to reduce odors
Reduce excessive protein feeding
Reducing protein swine diets from 18 to 14% reduced odor components by 40 to 86%
Nonruminants
Balance essential amino acids to create ideal dietary protein with crystalline amino acids
Use multi-phase and split-gender feeding
Avoid safety margins in protein feeding
Use genetically lean pigs
Use growth promoters
Minimize feed waste
Ruminants
Supply only enough ruminally degraded protein to meet the NH3 needs of the rumen bacteria
Beyond the microbial NH3 needs, meet animal’s metabolizable protein needs with ruminally undegrade protein sources or crystalline amino acids
Use phase feeding of beef feedlot or dairy cows
Control feed wastes
Reduce sulfur in mineral supplements
Can reduce odor by 40%
Utilize salts other than sulfates or sulfides for trace minerals

Increase cellulose or other nonstarch polysaccharides in swine diets
Causes bacteria in large intestine to incorporate NH3 into microbial protein
Reduces NH3 by as much as 35%
Ingredients to add:
Soy hulls
Sugar beet pulp
Distillers grains
Mask odor with other odors
Garlic powder has been used for poultry
Feeding sarsaponin
Extracted from yucca plant
Inhibits urease
Feeding zeolites
Minerals that have cation exchange capacity
Binds odor compounds
Reduce dust from animals’ skin
Increase quality of dietary fat
Feed adequate zinc

Management of livestock facilities to manage manure odor
Frequent cleaning of wet manure and feed from facilities
Manure standing for more than 5 days will cause considerable offensive odor
Use bedded systems
Odor seems less offensive than liquid systems
Addition of organic matter from bedding reduces odor
Reduce dust within and outside buildings
Approaches
Frequent cleaning
Spraying vegetable oils
Reduce NH3 and H2S by 30%
Spray once daily
Use a medium droplet size
Problem with oily facilities
Installation of wet scrubbers
Wetted pads 3 to 5’ in front of ventilation fans
Traps dust with some NH3, H2S, and NOx
Effectiveness on odors?
Use of chemical additives
Alum (K Al(SO4)) will reduce some NH3 emissions

Use Biofiltration
A system that uses aerobic bacteria to degrade gaseous odors from ventilated air
Process
Aerobic bacteria
VOC & inorganic gases CO2 + H2O + Mineral salts +
Microbial biomass
Fiber mat serves as media
Shredded wood and compost (50:50)
Shredded wood and soil (50:50)
Straw and compost
Less effective during periods of high ventilation
Can be difficult to control vegetation and rodents


Use Biomass filters
Walls of corn stalks, corn cob or other materials placed immediately outside ventilation fans
Effects
Reduces dust by 52 – 83%
Reduces odor by 43 – 90%


Use windbreak walls
Walls placed 10 – 20 ft downwind from ventilation fans
Effects
Settle dust near barn
Disperses odor plume upward to increase dilution












Use natural windbreaks
Rows of trees or other vegetation
Effects
Trap dust
Aids in dispersion and dilution of odor
Provides a visual barrier

Management of manure storage to limit odor
Aerobic treatment
Liquid manure
Air is pumped into liquid manure
Should oxidize odor-causing chemicals
Difficult to mix enough O2 to be effective
Solid manure
Composting
Requirements
Appropriate moisture (50%)
Adequate C:N ration (>20:1)
Aerobic conditions (Frequent mixing)
Temperature (130oF for 3 days)
Oxidizes odor and incorporates N-containing compounds into microbial protein
Effects
Reduces odor by 75% in 2 weeks


Management of anerobic lagoons
Complete anerobic digestion is effective at limiting odors
















Odors can be controlled if:
Loading rate is slow and uniform enough to allow balance of bacteria producing VFAs or CH4
Allows development of purple sulfur-oxidizing bacteria
Metabolize VOCs
Reduce amines
A purple or pink color of lagoon is desirable


Factors affecting odors in lagoons
High loading rates
Excess animal numbers
Inadequate dilution water
Windy conditions
Disturbs surface
Timing of agitation and pumping for application
Should be done on clear, sunny days when warm air causes odors to rise and disperse
Early spring turnover
Odor problems increase as bacterial action begins to increase digesting nutrients that were incompletely metabolized over winter

Use covers over storage facilities
Covers over manure structures
Rigid covers
Concrete, wood, fiberglass, plastic
Materials must be noncorrosive
Flexible covers
Tarp over manure with a blower
Floating covers
Natural
Crust floating on top of manure
Artificial organic
Straw, chopped corn stalks, wood shavings
Artificial
Polystyrene foam, air-filled clay balls, geotextile
Effectiveness
Provides a barrier between liquid manure and the atmosphere
Provides aerobic media to all microbes to degrade odor compounds
Limitations
Straw will only last from 2 weeks to 6 months


Anerobic digesters
Produce methane for biogas
Reduce odors by 70 – 80%
Additives
Biological
Microbial additives
Cultures added to degrade odor compounds
Effectiveness?
Chemical
Oxidizers and pH control
Limited effectiveness
Masking agents
Volatile compounds that smell pleasant
Sprayed on or above manure
May separate from manure downwind
Absorbents and Adsorbents
Activated carbon, zeolite, bentonite, or sphagnum moss
Effectiveness?
Antimicrobial oils
Includes plant oils like thymol and carvacol
Inhibit microbial degradation of manure during anerobic storage, but degrade in aerobic conditions after application
Preserves nutrients and reduces odor emissions
Still in research
Economics?

Natural windbreaks
Creates a visual barrier
Filters, disperses and dilutes odor
Separation of manure solids and liquid
Can be mechanical or gravity
Separates urea in urine from urease in feces
Effects
Reduces NH3
Reduces odor by 50%

Manure application management to control odors
Manure odor problems are directly proportional to the surface area for emissions
The area of manure application is the greatest source of manure odor
Factors affecting manure odor during application
Form of manure
Earthen basin > Below barn pit > Anerobic lagoon > Solid > Compost
Lagoon management
Lagoon should be large enough to leave a permanent pool to stabilize microbial population
Apply in June through fall
Odors reduced when microbes are most active
Dilute manure with water liberally
2 – 3 parts H2O : 1 part manure
Test for salt and NH3 concentration
Stop lagoon feeding 2 weeks before pumping
Allows bacteria the opportunity to degrade odor
Application method
Injection of manure into soil
Most effective at preventing odors
Surface application with incorporation
Must be done immediately after application

If surface applying liquid manure by irrigation make sure to:
Set sprayer for large droplets
Reduce droplet surface area
Adequately dilute manure with clean water
2:1
Monitor wind direction
Shut down if wind blows towards neighboring residences
Monitor wind spead
Shut down if wind speed exceeds 5 mph
Prevents dilution of odor

Consideration of neighbors as a method to control manure odor nuisance complaints
Siting of operation and fields for manure application
Major tool to limit odor nuisance complaints
Considerations
Distance
Odors decreases exponentially with distance
Distances (Required to use the Master Matrix)
> Residences
>¼ mile from buildings
>750 ft from manure application-Surface applied
> Residential development
>1 mile from buildings
>750 ft from manure application-Surface applied
Topography
Don’t build uphill from residences
Prevailing winds
Don’t build so residences are downwind of the prevailing winds
Especially during the spring
Building orientation
Short side of livestock facility should be perpendicular to the neighbor’s residence





Timing of manure application
Tell neighbors when you plan to spread manure
Select days when wind is blowing away from neighbors
Avoid spreading manure on weekends, holidays, or on days when neighbors have a social event planned
Facility maintenance
Maintain buildings and grounds around facilities
Mow grass
Control weeds
Proper dead animal disposal
Avoid spilling manure on roads

Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

October 6, 2008



In my

http://www.freewebs.com/ftcuatableofelements/

I chronicled the Table of Elements todate.

The Table of Isotopes, circa 1998, have to be updated.

Every Radioisotopes used need NRC licence and some need State Licensing also.

By-product license?

One can use multielemental analysis methods such as Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence, Neutron Activation Analysis, Proton Induced X-ray Emission and Proton Induced Gamma Emission, Direct Current Plasma, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy,
Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis…

Much like a metal detector but more versatile-elemental analyzer such as Niton, Bruker AXS handheld,
Metorex,
are portable.

Aribex is X-ray radiograph.

Gas Chromatograph with Mass Spectroscopy features can analyze for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons,
Liquified Petroleum Gas, Oil Shales,
Solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene and other by products of the petroleum industry.

Neutron Probe are used in industrial radiography.

For stoichiometric physico-chemical characterization of both inorganic and organic compounds, there is X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Crystallography, and Raman Spectroscopy, etc.

Remote Sensing equipments are linked to satellites whether telecommunications and/or weather to factor in such data.

Nanosatellites, 50 of them, were sent out to outer space on the 50th anniversary of Sputnik, last year, October 4, 2007.
Can we make portable and affordable instrumentations and multipurpose kits that will measure as much as possible all needed measurements such as inorganics, elemental and organics, aerosols, saw dust, impurities, toxic, reactive, inflammable, and corrosive materials, radiotoxic, chemitoxic, biotoxic, teratogenic, etc. bacteriocidal, also nanotoxic, whether nanonuclear, nanofission, nanofusion, etc.?

Radiation monitors, detectors and alarms are plenty to choose from, including fiber optics, nuclear track etch, fission track etch, aerogels? Sensors.

Before all of these, we should get the proper Laser Flash Photolysis Systems to monitor for transients, free radicals, and radiolytic products that can cause the initial chromosome aberrations and chromatic breaks, and genetic and somatic damages to the DNA and RNA.

Question: what causes defective genes?
National Genome Research.



National Science Foundation(NSF)
Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)
Department of Energy(DOE)
Department of Agriculture(USDA)
Food and Drug Administration(FDA)
Public Health Service(PHS)
Department of Health and Human Services(DHHS)
Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)
Consumer Product Safety Commission(CPSC)

Needed before marketing for each item: Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS).


Researches needed:

Definite identification of Star Aggregates-Particle Size Determination-Dose Equivalent(Dose x Quality Factor)-
Linear Energy Transfer and Linear Energy Loss(possible applications for atomic, nuclear and radiation batteries and generators e.g. Radioisotope Thermal Generators and Stirling RTG-NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio)-electromagnetic field generated?

X-ray Crystallography and X-ray Diffraction

Baseline Studies-Pre-Construction

Remediation

Decontamination

Decommissioning

Global Warming

Dr. Lance Christensen, PhD in Chemistry, Laser Flash Photolysis System

Pesticides, Insecticides, and Fungicides

Rhone Poulenc now

Rhône-Poulenc was a French chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in 1928 through the merger of Société des Usines Chimiques du Rhône (Rhône Chemical Plant Company) and Établissements Poulenc Frères (Poulenc Brothers Company). In January 1999, Rhône-Poulenc merged with Hoechst AG to form Aventis. In 2004, Aventis went on to merge with Sanofi-Synthélabo forming Sanofi-Aventis, the third largest pharmaceutical company in the world.
The agricultural chemicals division of Rhône-Poulenc, known as Aventis CropScience after the merger with Hoechst, was sold to the German chemical and pharmaceutical company Bayer in 2002. In 1998, the chemicals division of Rhône-Poulenc was spun-off into a separate company named Rhodia.
Rhône-Poulenc originally funded the Rhône-Poulenc Prizes, now known as the Royal Society Prizes for Science Books.

Product Information Compliance System(PICS)

Organic Farming






XRF-X-ray Radiography tandem 2 in 1

Au before Hg, Ag before Cd

Monday, October 6, 2008

Homestore Products

http://www.homestoreproducts.com/

Semiconductor Industries

President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo's Speech during the 10th
Semiconductor and Electronics Industries in the Philippines, Inc.
(SEIPI) CEO Forum

Thank you.

Thank you, Secretary Favila.

Chairman Arthur Young, President Ernie Santiago, all the members and
officers of SEIPI, welcome once again to Malacanang!

Many of you may remember the last time we met as a group two years
ago. But between then and now, I've met some of your principals at
international fora and I get to see many of you individually during
the many company events that have taken place in the industry. And I
stay updated on your many successes as well as your concerns. For
after all, you have made, as our two speakers have said, tremendous
contributions to our economy. Thank you to the industry.

A special thanks to the 242 companies that form SEIPI, the moving
spirit that has made your sector among the most united and organized
of Philippine industries. I have heard about your GAINS program for
global competitiveness, advocacy, information, networking and
services, and that it is the most forward-looking industry strategy in
the country. Congratulations to you!

We saw a part of your work in the two presentations today and for the
ordinary Filipino, the Philippine economic landscape of the 21st
century would be unrecognizable without your industries. You have
every right to claim to be the "driver of the Philippine economy," as
Ernie said in the beginning of his speech, you produce two-thirds of
Philippine exports. Over a billion Philippine-made memory chips, power
devices, disk drives, digital signal processors, magnetic heads and
similar products are found in various electronic appliances all over
the world coming from you. Because of you, our country has an
18-percent share of the global electronics market since 2006. I thank
you also personally because during my presidency, you have earned 200
billion dollars for our country. Your exports have grown almost 50
percent -- from 22 billion dollars in 2001 to 31 billion dollars a
year. And I was looking at the growth rate of the world and of Asia,
your exports in the last seven years have grown faster than the rest
of Asia.

Your industries have been major job creators. You give direct
employment to almost half a million Filipinos. That is the same number
as our Department of Education, which is our largest single government
employer.

Your sector invested five billion dollars during my administration.
And the peak, the rise in investments, was with Texas Instruments
which, by itself, is pumping more than a billion dollars for a new
operation in Clark, not to mention its new activities in Baguio. So,
we thank Bing for bringing that investment over.

I've also had the fortune of presiding over the expansion of other
companies like SunPower, large expansion. So, I'm very grateful for that.

In 2001, I was telling Ernie, that in 2001 you had a negative growth
rate, didn't you? And Ernie remembers that 2001 had a minus-22 growth
rate. It was a negative 22 percent. At that time, that was right after
the 9/11, but even before 9/11, the global market was already slowing
down. In 2001, the main market for Philippine-made electronics and
semiconductor items was the United States. Then the U.S. market
suffered a drop in sales. That's why your growth rate was minus 22
percent, though I might say that at that time, I remember how I said,
"Naku! Kakaupo ko lang, magne-negative growth rate ang Pilipinas,"
because electronics is such a major part of our economy.

But we work to do other things to strengthen the domestic market,
release all the arrears of IRA to the local governments, work on the
housing industries, spend on agriculture, as a result of which the
Philippine economy still had a positive growth rate even if the
electronics industry had a negative growth rate. But in the meantime,
just as we were working on how to make the Philippine economy remain
with a positive growth rate, you were also working, you were looking
for other markets. And indeed, you found other markets. So that when
we met in 2006, China was already your main customer, taking in 26
percent of your exports. And today, with even more changes in the
global economic arena, you have shifted your focus again.

This year 2008, `cause most of your figures are 2007, Ernie confirmed
to me that about 22 percent of your products go to Europe, 15 percent
to Japan, 14 percent to the U.S., 13 percent to China, and the rest to
other Asian countries.

But Arthur was telling me that there is a lot of potential, as you've
shown us in the presentation, within our own region. And so, with such
dynamism, your industry -- though it had a negative growth rate for
the first six months of the year -- in June, it managed to grow 2.6
percent year-on-year, and maybe that means that the slump is over and
you're beginning to go back to your upswing.

We have been working tirelessly as we did in 2001, and now even more
to address challenges arising from the slowdown in the global economy
which this time is combined with the spike in oil and food prices. We
all know this is a global phenomenon. Your presentation shows how
aware you are, and you need to be aware, because you're so integrated
with the global economy of what's going on in the world.

The events in the U.S. and the slowdown in the global economy are
causing real difficulties for countries around the world. But we are
not insulated from them, but our economy is more resilient today than
ever before. And I would say more resilient than some other countries
in our region. In some other country, which is also an attractive area
for your investments otherwise, the overheating is so much that the
government has to cut down on infrastructure spending. We have not
reached the stage of overheating and we are not cutting down. In fact,
we are increasing infrastructure spending.

We're able to do this because of the economic and fiscal reforms that
we have implemented in recent years through the cooperation of
Congress. These have resulted in the strengthening of our
macroeconomic fundamentals as well as our banking system. So our
economy is strong enough to withstand the external financial turmoil.

We've been working hard on all fronts to manage inflationary
pressures, to provide a safety net to those hit hardest by these
global developments, and deliver the growth that will continue to
generate jobs and tax revenues that we need to fuel our investments in
our nation's future.

We've been working hard to make sure that food supplies remain stable
and to put food on the table for every Filipino in order to avoid
demands for a wage spiral and, therefore, keep you competitive. We
were discussing what we know when Arthur was making his presentation
about our... the cost being a small portion of the cost of goods sold
compared to other places. So overall, there is still a good amount of
competitiveness here and we contribute to that, among other things, by
trying to keep the cost of food low or affordable so that there will
be no demand for a wage spiral.

We've also been introducing measures to lift the burden of high fuel
prices off our people. So that there will be no big transportation
cost increase for the workers who go to work for the same reason to
avoid demands for a wage spiral.

On the same token, our Economic team, of which Peter is a member, in
coordination with the Bangko Sentral, of which Peter is our government
representative to the Monetary Board, our Economic team is closely
monitoring developments in the global financial markets. We're working
hard to further strengthen the domestic economy by accelerated
spending for infrastructure. As I have said, whereas other countries
around us may be pressured to reduce infrastructure spending, we're
accelerating infrastructure and agriculture, fast-tracking financial
reforms to further strengthen the banking system, improve our fiscal
health by better tax collection and also by legislative measures, and
encouraging investment by such measures as reducing regulatory
bottlenecks for strategic industries like the semiconductor and
electronics industry.

Texas Instruments, Bing was telling us, came to the Philippines and it
was not easy for us to make sure that they come to the Philippines.
There were other very attractive or prospective hosts, and we are all
vying and the key was the red tape. And we won over our other rival
possible destinations and Texas Instruments decided to do their new
plant here. The same thing with some other multi-hundred
million-dollar investments coming up soon. Peter, who is chairman of
our Anti-Red Tape Task Force, is working hard to make sure that old
bottlenecks are removed and I hope we will be seeing this new
investment soon.

We are addressing most of the concerns you presented in 2001, aside
from the concerns that are presented by individual prospective
investors. And I remember infrastructure was one of your biggest
concerns. And your companies were among the ones we thought of when we
pushed for big infrastructure projects across the nation. The SLEX,
the Alabang Viaduct, is now 83-percent complete -- should be finished
soon. But even now, with one lane already completed, it has eased the
flow of traffic from CALABARZON towards NAIA. The Batangas Port, which
was completed last year, last December, services some of your
companies. The SCTEX has been completed also for the convenience of
the factories located in the northern part of the Luzon Urban Beltway.

Now, I remember the last time we had a meeting, you saw all the
infrastructure coming up. So you were confident about that, so you
said the infrastructure we must work on now must be the power sector.
And on power costs, PEZA now offers reduced rates for its locators.
And hopefully, we will have the implementation of open access which
would hopefully bring power cost down some more and, probably, the
milestone for that will be the consummation of the Calaca investment
in the power sector, perhaps by November.

Earlier than that, we began the `time of use method' of computing
power rates along with the WESM, then MERALCO's Customer Choice
program and High Load Factor Discount for customers consuming at least
5 MW, and that's certainly you. Other provisions of the EPIRA,
particularly the condonation of the loans of electric cooperatives,
have been implemented. And let me point out that there are areas
around the country where the host municipalities and barangays give
discounts or subsidized the electric bills of their customers. So I
would reiterate my invitation that when you do your expansions, you
think of locating in these areas where the local government has the
royalties from the power sources that are in their areas and they used
these royalties to subsidize electric bills.

One example would be Palinpinon in the town of, is it Dauin or
Zamboanguito? Ah, no, in Valencia in Negros Oriental, and that's the
reason why we're making the airport better so that your airports... so
that your whole logistics will be acceptable to you. Another example
would be the geothermal areas in Leyte in Tongonan, in Ormoc and the
neighboring town of Kananga, I believe, because they also have a lot
of royalties. Some barangay residents don't even pay any electric bill
at all. And we have an airport in Ormoc or even in Tacloban that can
be suited to your requirements, as Texas Instruments has seen, we are
doing with La Union Airport for their Baguio operation. So these are
things that will help you to reduce your power costs. And we will
spend in the infrastructure that you need for your transport
competitiveness.

And most recently, an ERC ruling lowered to eight percent the
recoverable systems loss of distribution utilities.

But together, let us look for more ways to reduce power costs,
especially for small and medium companies outside of PEZAs, some of
whom are your own suppliers and subcontractors.

On manpower, Ernie Santiago said I should announce to you, because not
all of you know, that we are promoting Engineering R&D activities in
the country at a significant scale. Three billion pesos is our budget
for that in order to modernize every aspect of the economic
underpinnings of the Philippines, including semiconductors and
electronics, to propel economic growth. Because we know that
modernization needs a critical mass of R&D-capable manpower that will
further attract technology-based investments like semiconductorsand
especially electronics. This three billion pesos that I'm talking
about started last year. It's an investment in Engineering Research
and Development Technology. As a part of this, as a big part of this
since last school year, seven universities led by the U.P. College of
Engineering have been offering scholarships for masters and doctoral
degree programs in all fields of Engineering, including what
specialized field you might want for your own industry.

But I must congratulate SEIPI because they're already a part of this
program spearheading linkages with U.P. and other reputable academic
institutions for specialized masteral and doctoral training for your
industry.

Government consults SEIPI on the steps that can strengthen your
industries, expand your markets, and increase your convincing power in
bringing in more investors to your sector. Ernie last appeared before
a Cabinet meeting only last month, so he can attest to how frequently
we consult SEIPI when we need to do our industrial planning.

A continuation of these efforts will help us weather the global storm
and make sure that we are able to achieve the economic rebound that we
are projecting for next year.

As I said, if you think of the fact that we will have flat growth this
year, remember you were minus-22 percent in 2001 and how you
recovered, and you will recover even more now because we can see the
investments that are under gestation. Texas Instruments will formally
open in January and with their market of three billion dollars a year,
we can expect that by yearend, we will have a very big increase in the
electronics exports not to mention those new industries that Peter is
nursing, or those new factories that Peter is nursing for them to
locate here in the Philippines.

So, against the gale force winds of the global economy, we remain
bullish on our country and your industry. We are optimistic about our
future, your future, and we're deeply committed to being a force for
the good of your industry which is good for our people. The
semiconductor and electronics industries and the government have a
strong synergy. You are an invaluable partner in Philippine growth.

So, from a grateful nation, Mabuhay at maraming salamat sa inyo!

Thank you.

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